Кратко о кроссфите
Википедия описывает “кроссфит”, как программу силовых упражнений, состоящую из постоянно меняющихся функциональных упражнений высокой интенсивности. Сами по себе упражнения обычно длятся не более 20 минут, отличаются повышенной интенсивностью.
В программе обычно комбинируется бег (спринтерские забеги), гребля (на специальных тренажерах), прыжки (со скакалкой или на препятствия), лазание по канатам, работа с «железом» (гантели, гири, штанга), перенос вещей (медбол), упражнения на кольцах, переворачивание покрышек и многие другие.
Одной из отличительных особенностей системы является работа в группах по 10-15 человек, что помогает тренироваться более эффективно — опытные участники сообщества подбадривают новичков, а также соревнуются между собой за лучший результат.
На Зожнике мы неоднократно публиковали тексты о кроссфите: “Бородатый кроссфитчик-викинг Лукас Паркер“, “Самая горячая кроссфит-девушка. Интервью с Камиль ЛеБлан-Базине“, “«Дядюшка» Рабдомиолиз и еще 11 мифов о кроссфите“.
Сегодня публикуем перевод интервью с Грегом Глассманом, который сделали наши коллеги из bodyboss.ru.
“Ay, ay, ay, ay. Canta y no llores.” A mariachi tenor backed by a traditional Guadalajaran band belts lyrics into the salty evening air. The seminar is over, and a backyard gathering at Glassman’s home overlooking Monterey Bay is lit. There are doctors of all specialties, CrossFit execs and Games athletes, Special Forces operators, scientists, a drooly 150-pound mastiff, and, yeah, the mariachi band.
Glassman pivots from group to group, attracting attention. He is in conversation like a pit bull on a pork chop. His eyes gloss and his laser of consciousness is equal parts erudite, poetic, and conspiratorial.“These scientific organizations are funded by soda proxies,” he says. “Their campaigns to produce junk science are successful to the extent that they can impact the margins and create fear around thinking outside the establishment.” Turns out Big Soda may have been Glassman’s nemesis all along.
During Glassman’s legal fight with the NSCA, his team discovered that the association’s research was funded partly by the soda industry. More digging revealed other health organizations cashing Big Soda’s checks. Scientists at Boston University confirmed 96 of them, and other research shows that studies funded exclusively by food and drink companies are four to eight times as likely to find results positive to the funder. In one case, for example, Coca-Cola secretly bankrolled the now-disbanded Global Energy Balance Network, a university-based nonprofit whose basic message was that what you eat doesn’t matter so long as you exercise enough—junk science. Drinking one or two sugar-sweetened beverages a day, for example, is associated with a 26 percent increase in risk of type 2 diabetes, say Harvard researchers.
“It was the Big Soda stuff that compelled Greg to start CrossFit Health,” says Pat Sherwood, a former Navy SEAL who works for CrossFit. “But if someone can take it on, it’s that guy. Greg likes to fight, and he never, ever backs down.” Glassman sees science sponsored by pop as akin to Big Tobacco’s paying for bad research to cast doubt on the harms of smoking. He regularly calls out publicly the names of researchers who have accepted soda dollars and is lobbying to strengthen conflict-of-interest guidelines at the CDC and the National Institutes of Health. He backed a failed California bill to add warning labels to soda, but he’s continuing that fight.
“The real, less sexy story of CrossFit is the unseen epidemiological revolution that has millions of CrossFitters taking a pass on chronic disease,” says Glassman. “If you eat too much sugar and you can’t squat, pick up things off the ground, throw, jump, run, and climb, then you’re broken. And we want to fix you.”
Michael Easter is a writer and Visiting Lecturer at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas.
Half of Americans have at least one chronic disease, and more than a million people die unnecessarily each year from the maladies.
“All this mess is rooted in excessive carb intake and a lack of movement. It’s sugar,” says Glassman, diving down the rabbit hole, a place he frequents. He began developing his nutrition ideas in the ’90s while working at a Gold’s Gym in Venice alongside a trainer who “was getting people skinny inordinately fast,” he says. “One day she pulled me aside and told me she was having clients restrict their carbohydrates.” From there he met Barry Sears, Ph.D., a former MIT researcher and creator of the Zone Diet. These encounters gave rise to CrossFit’s suggested 40/30/30 split of macronutrients among carbs, fat, and protein. The paleo thing? It caught fire when Robb Wolf, a nutrition scientist, began talking about the diet in early CrossFit nutrition seminars.
Go ahead, exercise as hard as you can. If you stuff your face like an unsupervised eight-year-old, “you only have one oar in the water,” says Glassman. “Eat meat and vegetables, nuts and seeds, some fruit, little starch, no sugar. Keep to levels that will support exercise but not body fat.” That’s the rest of “Fitness in 100 Words.”
It’s sound nutrition advice. Most research suggests that carbohydrates—especially from whole-food sources—aren’t inherently fattening. And nutritionists generally agree that added sugar is a scourge. The eating plan is reinforced in boxes and is approachable for any diet novice. “Most diabetic patients usually eat way too many processed carbohydrates, especially sugar,” says Tom Siskron IV, M.D., a Louisiana-based physician who also comanages CrossFit Medicus One. Glassman’s framework eliminates the garbage and directs people into nutrient-dense, natural, filling foods. “Some of my patients have been able to get off diabetes and blood-pressure medicine following the advice,” says Dr. Siskron. Research shows that exercise and eliminating processed carbohydrates from your diet can reverse diabetes—the key is adhering to the program. CrossFit’s simple eating plan, scaleable fun workouts, and built-in community may make it that much easier.
What’s fit? For powerlifters it’s picking up heavy stuff. For runners it’s quickly covering ground. For Glassman, fitness revolves around the skills humans have needed to hunt and gather for 2 million years. He identified ten in The CrossFit Journal in 2002: endurance, strength, stamina, flexibility, power, speed, coordination, agility, balance, and accuracy. Glassman’s back-to-the-future fitness meant being ready for anything.
He condensed his thinking in his 100-word definition of fitness: “Practice and train major lifts: deadlift, clean, squat, presses, C&J, and snatch. Similarly, master the basics of gymnastics: pullups, dips, rope climb, pushups, situps, presses to handstand, pirouettes, flips, splits, and holds. Bike, run, swim, row, etc., hard and fast. Five or six days per week. Mix these elements in as many combinations and patterns as creativity will allow. Routine is the enemy. Keep workouts short and intense. Regularly learn and play new sports.”
The varied, intense training appeals to first responders. “CrossFit absolutely contributes to building better military units,” says Virginia congressman and retired Navy SEAL Scott Taylor. “People improve their strength, endurance, flexibility, movement—and can do more things that carry over to the job.”
Beyond escaping boredom, these diverse external stimuli fill your fitness gaps and lead to more beneficial internal adaptations, says Kechijian. A long endurance session, for example, expands the chambers of your heart, while all-out weight intervals increase the strength of its contractions. The combination helps you better fend off heart disease.
1 per 1,000
Soon a couple of guys in Seattle who followed Glassman’s online WODs asked if they could open a CrossFit affiliate. “I said, ‘What the fuck’s an affiliate?’ ” Glassman says. “They said ‘We’re going to use your name and do what you’re doing.’ So I said, ‘Okay, I’ll charge you $500 and then I’ll waive your fee.’ And that’s what we did.”
By 2005, the brand had a small but rabid online following and the number of CrossFit gyms had jumped from 15 to 50. The method proved especially popular among police, firefighters, soldiers, MMA fighters, professional athletes, and other “overachievers.”
CrossFit hit 500 affiliates by 2009, the boxes now drawing a wider crowd who loved the camaraderie, hard workouts, and ensuing results—with each new CrossFitter becoming a walking, talking billboard who’d love to tell you anything and everything about their CrossFit workout, CrossFit friends, and CrossFit diet.
With the manic intensity and people pushing beyond their limits came concerns of injury. CrossFit’s embrace of unofficial mascots like Pukie the Clown and Uncle Rhabdo (which, if you know Glassman, are more provocative than prescriptive) fed the hype. These peaked in 2013 when Ohio State University researchers released a highly publicized study in the scientific publication of the National Strength and Conditioning Association—a governing body of fitness—that “call(ed) into question the risk-benefit ratio” of CrossFit, which the authors labeled “extreme.”
Glassman’s team investigated and discovered “fraudulent data” in the story. They sued the NSCA and accused it of producing “unscientific manufactured hit piece(s)” engineered to injure CrossFit’s business. The claims at first seemed conspiratorial, but the evidence revealed the truth: CrossFit won the suit, the study was retracted for shoddy science, its author and editor stepped down, and the judge accused the NSCA of perjury and concealing evidence.
Given CrossFit’s popularity and the injury question, there’s been no shortage of additional study on the topic. Most of the research suggests that CrossFit is not more dangerous than other strength-based training and safer than many endurance sports, like running. Researchers in the UK found that CrossFit results in roughly 2.1 injuries per 1,000 training hours. The figure for recreational running is eight; for novice runners, 18.
“CrossFit for competition has a different goal than CrossFit for general fitness,” says Doug Kechijian, D.P.T., a New York City–based physical therapist. In competition, you go all out with fixed exercises and weights. CrossFit for general fitness scales workouts to your ability. For example, if the workout calls for a handful of 95-pound barbell snatches and your form is shaky, you might reduce the load, drop the reps, or swap in a similar but less technical exercise.
“There are at least 20,000 of you training in CrossFit boxes,” says Glassman, addressing 40 doctors inside an 8,000-square-foot barn nestled in central California’s farm country. It’s a diverse group—a neurologist from Boston, a trauma surgeon from San Francisco, an orthopedic surgeon from Jackson, Mississippi. Glassman is wearing jeans, graphic T-shirt, and backwards camouflage hat—that California-casual getup he rocks whether he’s on 60 Minutes,lecturing at Harvard, or meeting with politicans.
“Can we all agree something’s wrong with the health system?” he asks. The doctors lean in, sucked into the Glassman vortex. “Show of hands.” Every doc reaches skyward. “You’ve seen things about health that are essential and true, and when your lying eyes are at odds with your medical training, you need to rethink your education,” he explains, methodically pacing with a mild limp, the result of childhood polio and bone-breaking dismounts as a high school and college gymnast. “That’s why I’m here.”
“Here” is CrossFit Holy Land: “the Ranch” in Aromas, the site in 2007 of the first CrossFit Games, a weekend when 400-plus stupid-fit people do stupid-hard workouts to determine the fittest humans on earth. Glassman invited the doctors here to indoctrinate them with a CrossFit MDL1 course, a certification reserved for M.D.’s. There’s a 400-doctor waiting list for future courses.
Across more than 20,000 hours of medical school, physicians receive about 25 hours of lecture on nutrition. As for exercise? LOL. What really digs at Glassman is that docs do, however, spend semesters on pharmacology. “The CDC estimates chronic diseases account for 86 percent of health-care spending and 70 percent of deaths,” he says. “If people would just get off the couch and off the processed carbs, 40 percent of those deaths could be avoided.”
Enter CrossFit Health, Glassman’s shotgun blast at America’s obesity crisis: It’s a steady stream of these MDL1 courses, which will create a network of CrossFit-friendly doctors who might prefer to prevent and fix couch-and-carb-induced lifestyle diseases by sending you to a box instead of a pharmacy or a surgeon. It’s the brand’s attempt to huddle the overweight, diabetic masses. On Instagram, CrossFit posts fewer images of jacked 20-somethings doing reps to infinity and more shots of what CrossFit does for people you might see at Walmart: a diabetic woman doing her first box jump, an 80-year-old lifting a dumbbell from the floor, a daily flow of before-and-after weight-loss shots.
CrossFit Health is about increasing the number of CrossFit boxes, creating access for all. It’s also about fighting the establishment: lawsuits against fitness organizations trying to bring down the brand as well as junk-food companies that fund nutrition science. Hell, it may eventually be a health-care association and insurance package for the 4 million CrossFitters. It is seemingly many things, all of which are evolving organically, exactly how Glassman likes. “It would be a mistake to engineer this from the top down,” he says.
A doctor interjects, “What do we say if our patients have seen the Games and say ‘That’s not for me’?”
“Invite them to the gym,” says Glassman. “For each athlete who’s gone to the Games, we have 15 people who’ve used CrossFit to lose 100 pounds or cure their diabetes.”
“What about concerns that they’ll get injured?” asks an orthopedist.
That i-word pulls the trigger. “Jesus, as a vast discipline, you orthopedists can’t get enough of football and running, but somehow CrossFit is the boogeyman,” Glassman says. “Fuck injuries. You think we got to 15,000 boxes by hurting everyone?”
“No, not me,” the orthopedist says. “I’m asking for other doctors. . . .”
“Yeah, I get that,” says Glassman. “But see, we gotta unfuck the doctors first.” The most controversial man in fitness is at it again, picking fights with the establishment.
История от первого лица
Как Вы пришли к фитнесу и каким образом Ваш опыт эволюционировал в методологию кроссфита?
Впервые тренерской деятельностью я занялся в 1974 году в качестве инструктора по гимнастике в Христианском союзе женской молодежи в Пасадене, штат Калифорния. Тогда я был 18-летним студентом колледжа. В течение следующих пятнадцати лет я работал в десятках лучших южно-калифорнийских гимнастических залах, что позволило добиться высокой эффективности моей программы тренировок и приобрести клиентов среди знаменитостей.
Через несколько лет стало абсолютно ясно, что комбинирование элементов традиционного бодибилдинга (сгибания, растяжки ног, разведение в стороны рук с гантелями и др.) и продолжительных нагрузок по аэробике, хоть и дает результат, но он значительно хуже, чем от комбинирования существенных силовых нагрузок с довольно интенсивными нагрузками на сердце.
Атлеты, инструкторы и просто посетители гимнастических залов были поражены, как Crossfit-атлеты чередовали тяги больших весов с забегами на 400 метров. Но это лишь до тех пор, пока сами не попробовали это. На сегодняшней день встретить человека, комбинирующего основные нагрузки штангиста и спринт в одной тренировке, вы можете с такой же вероятностью, как и выиграть в лотерею. Но положение изменится, если начнут продвигаться меры по улучшению физического состояния.
К 1995 году кроссфит был разрекламирован на телевидении, радио и в прессе за его вклад в развитие программ тренировок для полиции, а также за успехи и достижения наших атлетов. Однако именно создание вебсайта в феврале 2001 года с ежедневными программами тренировок позволило нам получить обратную связь от тысяч атлетов по всему миру
Важность этого процесса переоценить невозможно
В настоящий момент наша программа находит применение в полиции, армии, различных ассоциациях боевых искусств, а также среди олимпийских команд различных видов спорта.
С какого рода людьми Вы работали?
Буквально со всеми. Я даже не знаю, как охарактеризовать нашего типичного клиента. К нам приходит и семидесятилетний автор списка справочной литературы по кардиологии, и единственный американский мировой чемпион по джиу-джитсу, обладатель черного пояса.
Мы также работаем с военными оперативными службами особого назначения и полицией, за которых мы испытываем большую гордость. Огромной честью для меня была полученная по электронной почте благодарность от солдат, вернувшихся из Афганистана, которых за высокий уровень физической подготовки наградили серебряными и бронзовыми звездами. В этом году тренеры из Полицейской корпорации при Министерстве юстиций США стали нашими первыми аттестованными клиентами. А помощь этим людям в создании новых программ для тренировок полицейских и стало кульминацией моего почти тридцатилетнего исследования совершенства человека.
During a training session, the doctors circle a set of gymnastics rings hanging from the barn’s 20-foot ceiling. One grabs the rings and hangs. She quickly pulls herself up, bringing her body in toward the rings, begins to press, then stalls and plummets back to a hang. She’s attempting her first muscleup, a technical gymnastic exercise that combines a pullup and dip.
Someone offers a form tip: “Bring your elbows and hands in close to your torso.” Attempt two: Her chest rises toward her hands; she leans in, keeping her hands tight into her shoulders, then presses. Her body slowly rises above the rings.
Might as well have been the savior rising once more. The docs lose their shit, yelling, clapping, and whistling.
Nearly half of Americans report feeling lonely, according to research from Cigna. Scientists at Brigham Young discovered that lonely people were 26 percent more likely to die across seven years, making social isolation as bad for you as obesity.
Picture a traditional gym. Everyone has earbuds in, avoids eye contact, and scrolls through their phone between sets. Now picture a CrossFit box. It’s the scene with the doctors times 15,000. A group of 10, 15, up to 50 people exercise together. They encourage each other through the same workout, personal bests are posted on a whiteboard, no earbuds in or cell phones out. “CrossFit moved strength training from an isolated experience to a communal one,” says Casper ter Kuile, a researcher at the Harvard Divinity School who has studied CrossFit.
Yes, that holds you accountable to show up and work hard, says ter Kuile. But he’s more concerned with the deeper impact. “In a time of increased isolation and declining traditional religious congregations, our research found that CrossFit boxes are places where people can find meaning and belonging,” he says. “The community helps each other work towards self-transformation.”
Mister Glassman Lyrics
Let’s paint a picture: you’re in class
The teacher writes the notes too fast
And there’s a boy who sits in back
Who’s too afraid to raise his hand
And ask if she can slow it down
So nervously he looks around
Can’t bare to stand out in the crowd
And he’s only gotten half the notes now
The school bell rings and he feels deflated
He looks at his hand, he should’ve raised it
His biggest fear, he should’ve faced it
And now he’s lost inside the pages
He might be there but you’d never notice
Got a lot to say but he’s soft spoken
He’s a book that just isn’t open
A tiny ripple in a stormy ocean
A few years later, and now it’s prom season
Mister Glass isn’t going, unless he has a reason
There’s a cutie in his class that he likes a lot
But he’s afraid to ask, because they’ve never talked
Plus if she says yes, what’s he gonna do?
Doesn’t have a car, dude, he’s screwed
He doesn’t feel cool, he’s too subdued
And he’s scared to meet her parents too
Boohoo, just another chance he blew
Cause theres too many things going on in his head
And he’s always in his head thinking too far ahead
Could’ve gone to prom
But instead he lays in bed
Thinkin’ of all the things that he left unsaid till he’s red
Silly, Mister Glass, the world has a way
But now I’m sure you’ve heard many people say:
«You miss every opportunity you don’t take»
Don’t be shy, kid, make your own fate
Glassman, Mister Glassman
He’s really soft-spoken
He’s really soft-spoken
You never notice glass unless its broken
Now Mister Glass is older, and he’s doing just fine
Yeah, he made it through high school
Even though he was shy
Remember when he didn’t ask that cutie to prom?
Well, now he’s got a couple kids
And they’re calling her mom,
And remember when he couldn’t raise his hand in class?
Well now he’s up on stage in front of fans, rappin’ fast
But he still gets scared and he still gets nervous
Cause you gotta fear the waves if you wanna go surfin’
Nothin’ is for certain
Like does cursive have a purpose?
Was it worth it that you learned it?
Probably not, I don’t know, I digress
But the point I’m tryna stress
Is we’re all just made of glass
Even when we’re at our best
We can break, we can splinter
Disappear or lose our temper
Even if you think you’re bulletproof
I am glass, and so are you
Glassman, Mister Glassman
He’s really soft-spoken!
You never notice glass unless its broken!
He’s really soft-spoken!
You never notice glass unless its broken!
Its hard to get by when you’re feelin’ so shy
You gotta keep on movin’ just a step at a time
He’s really soft-spoken!
You never notice glass unless its broken!
Shooby doo wop
Shooby doo way
Shooby dooby dooby doo
He’s really soft-spoken!
More on Genius
520 and 520
Just beyond the barn rises a steep, grassy cow-and-turkey-populated hill bisected by a dirt four-wheeler trail. It’s the Hamburger Hill of the CrossFit world. Many an early CrossFit Games tasked athletes with repeatedly running up, down, and around it. Athletes would then head to the barn area for Olympic lifts.
The event in just a few years outgrew the Ranch and moved to L. A.’s StubHub Center, and eventually to Alliant Energy Center in Madison, Wisconsin. The Games are open to all CrossFitters, with qualifiers held over six months and the 400 top athletes going to the five-day finals.
Mat Fraser, three-time winner of the CrossFit Games, can deadlift 520, run a mile in 5:20, and row a marathon in 2:48:36. Alone, these feats are not world-class. But their convergence is freaky, the human equivalent of a sedan that can tow a tank, compete in a drag race, and get 60 miles to the gallon. “The Games athletes are doing things that no one thought was possible ten years ago,” says Chris Spealler, who has competed in seven Games.
The event is a hothouse for fitness creativity, and Dave Castro, a retired Navy SEAL and CrossFit’s Games manager, is its Picasso. He devises physical tests inspired by art, mathematics, psychology, and sports, among other disciplines. He recently set rep schemes based on the Fibonacci sequence, a series of integers seen in complex mathematics and the threads that make the fabric of the universe: the forming of pinecones, storms, galaxies—and merciless workouts. A recent hit includes that row marathon. “I wanted something that tested them mentally . . . doing the same difficult thing for hours,” says Castro.
There are now thousands of different WODs, the most famous of which are Glassman’s “girls”—Fran, Cindy, and Diane—benchmark workouts he says he developed to measure progress: “Any workout that leaves you flat on your back, staring up at the sky, wondering what the hell happened deserves a girl’s name.”
Courtesy CrossFit Inc